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Do the same for the remaining Iterations of the program for sorting array in C. Move elements of the bottom row. We can rotate the array K times by one position resulting in the final array rotated by K positions. Note that if you end up using an additional array, you will only receive partial score. The first parameter 2 defines the position where new elements should be added spliced in. The rotation of an array simply means to shift the array elements of an array to the specified positions.
Step 1: Check if python is already installed by entering the following command in the command prompt. The angle can be set in terms of degrees, gradians, radians, or turns.
If we want to count only inversions, we need. Linear search is less used today because it is slower than binary search and hashing. Java program for Left Rotation in Array.
Given an integer, , rotate the array that many steps left and return the result. In this article, we are going to learn what will be the position of array elements after Left rotating d times an array using a very simple and easy trick in just O n complexity where n is the size of the array….
A data structure is a particular way of organizing data in a computer so that it can be used effectively. The optional argument defaults to -1, so that by default the last item is removed and returned. Given two integer arrays nums1 and nums2, return an array of their intersection. Rotate a whereas the technical maturity and broad use of map service.
We can perform any number of rotations on an array. Write a Java program to sort a numeric array and a string array. Fun with array rotations Hacker Noon.
What is the algorithm to rotate a two dimensional array?. Let us see an example for a better understanding of the rectangular array in C.
Please refer complete article on Search an element in a sorted and rotated array …. Approach: Rotate the array recursively one by one element. Save the last element and shift the rest of the elements by one position to the right and then overwrite the first element with the saved last element. Approach: Step1: Transpose of the matrix.
Java 8 Object Oriented Programming Programming. To rotate a ring, we need to do following. The rest of the parameters “Lemon” , “Kiwi” define the new elements to be added.
Lets look at how we can calculate the number of times the array is rotated…. It works by just joining the later sliced part to the initial sliced part given the rotation number. Construct an auxiliary array of pairs of elements with their indices and simply sort the array and perform binary search for given X on sorted auxiliary array Follow the below steps: For every element in array write elements and their indices in an auxiliary array of pairs.
Question 3 – Finding a number in an Array. Maximum sum of subarray less than or equal to x Easy Accuracy: Firstly reverse all the elements of the array…. Write a C program to read and print elements of array. For example, if left rotations are performed on array , then the array would become. Append the array elements to the new list, leaving the elements that have to be rotated. Tree interview questions geeksforgeeks.
Negative values are treated as being relative to the end of the array. Variables can store data of different types, and different types can do different things. The shape of an array is the number of elements in each dimension. Medium 35 Search Insert Position. Find maximum average subarray of k length; Count. The first element of the array will be added to the last of the array. Saved by Uttam java gfg geeksforgeeks lecture arrays leftrotate rotatearray Rotate Array Given an unsorted array arr of size N.
The second index position accesses the column: matrix [row]
We’ll define a utility function to print a matrix. If the number of rotation is x, then minimum element is A [x]. Following example uses rotate method to rotate elements of the list depending on the …. The program defines the square matrix 90 degrees clockwise direction. Space Complexity: O n , Temporary array. It will have a variable number of. We can access the elements of an array by the index at which the element is stored.
Below is an example to declare a string with name as str and initialize it with “GeeksforGeeks”. Python program to cyclically rotate an array by one; Python program to left rotate the elements of an array; Python program to right rotate the elements of an array; Python – Ways to rotate a list; String slicing in Python to rotate a string; Java program to cyclically rotate an array by one.
Method of permutations for a given string. Write a C program to find sum of all array elements. List of array and matrix programming exercises. Suppose you want to find the values of the elements that are not missing. There are several algorithms that can be used to solve Sudoku puzzles, and in this post we will use a backtracking algorithm to both generate and solve the If not, the standard Sudoku puzzle is a 9 x 9 grid that is divided into 9 boxes of 3 x 3 squares – 81 squares total.
Inversion Count for an array indicates — how far or close the array is from being sorted. A left rotation operation on an array of size shifts each of the array’s elements unit to the left. It is to rotate all the elements of the array by k steps by rotating the elements by 1 unit in each space. Browse other questions tagged algorithm optimization constraint-programming n-queens or ask your own question.
Rotating; Navigation Given an array, rotate the array to the right by k steps, where k is non-negative performs a forward transformation of 1D or 2D real array; the result, though being a complex array, has complex-conjugate symmetry CCS, see the function description below for details , and such an array can be packed into a real array …. Rotation of the above array by 2 will make array Recommended: Please solve it on.
Related functions: ltrim – Removes whitespace or other predefined characters from the left side of a string. To solve this, we will follow these steps. Climb Stairs With Variable Jumps easy. We have two flexibilities either to rotate them leftwards or rightwards via different ways which we are going to explore by implementing every way of rotating in both of the rotations. Given an array, rotate the array to the right by k steps, where k is non-negative. Given an integer array nums and an integer k, return true if nums has a continuous subarray of size at least two whose elements sum up to a multiple ….
The array must be modified in-place without using extra space. Steps to do it : Take array as input. The Magnetic Lasso tool works something like a combination of the other two lasso tools, and gives the best results when good contrast exists between the area you want to select and its surroundings. Color-based selections The Magic Wand tool selects parts of an image based on the similarity in pixel color. It is useful for selecting odd-shaped areas that share a specific range of colors.
In the Favorites panel, click the Lessons folder. Then double-click the Lesson03 folder in the Content panel to see its contents. Study the 03End. Move the thumbnail slider to the right if you want to see the image in more detail.
The project is a shadowbox that includes a piece of coral, a sand dollar, a mussel, a nautilus, and a plate of small shells. The challenge in this lesson is to arrange these elements, which were scanned together on the single page you see in the 03Start.
Double-click the 03Start. Using the Quick Selection tool The Quick Selection tool provides one of the easiest ways to make a selection. You simply paint an area of an image, and the tool automatically finds the edges. You can add or subtract areas of the selection until you have exactly the area you want.
The image of the sand dollar in the 03Working. Select the Zoom tool in the Tools panel, and then zoom in so that you can see the sand dollar well. Select the Quick Selection tool in the Tools panel. Select Auto-Enhance in the options bar. When Auto-Enhance is selected, the Quick Selection tool creates better quality selections, with edges that are truer to the object. The selection process is a little slower than using the Quick Selection tool without Auto-Enhance, but the results are superior.
Click on an off-white area near the outside edge of the sand dollar. The Quick Selection tool finds the full edge automatically, selecting the entire sand dollar.
Leave the selection active so that you can use it in the next exercise. The rest of the image is not affected by those changes. To move the selected area to another part of the composition, you use the Move tool. This image has only one layer, so the pixels you move will replace the pixels beneath them. If the sand dollar is not still selected, repeat the previous exercise to select it.
Zoom out so you can see both the shadowbox and the sand dollar. Select the Move tool. Notice that the sand dollar remains selected. Unless a selection tool is active, clicking elsewhere in the image will not deselect the active area. Tool tips from the Photoshop evangelist. Julieanne Kost is an official Adobe Photoshop evangelist.
The layers that are under the pointer appear in the context menu. Manipulating selections You can move selections, reposition them as you create them, and even duplicate them. One of the most useful things you may find in this section is the introduction of keyboard shortcuts that can save you time and arm motions. Repositioning a selection marquee while creating it Selecting ovals and circles can be tricky.
As you perform this exercise, be very careful to follow the directions about keeping the mouse button or specific keys pressed. If you accidentally release the mouse button at the wrong time, simply start the exercise again from step 1. Select the Elliptical Marquee tool , hidden under the Rectangular Marquee tool. Move the pointer over the plate of shells, and drag diagonally across the oval plate to create a selection, but do not release the mouse button.
If you accidentally release the mouse button, draw the selection again. In most cases— including this one—the new selection replaces the previous one. Still holding down the mouse button, press the spacebar, and continue to drag the selection. Position it so that it more closely aligns with the plate.
Carefully release the spacebar but not the mouse button and continue to drag, trying to make the size and shape of the selection match the oval plate of shells as closely as possible.
If necessary, hold down the spacebar again and drag to move the selection marquee into position around the plate of shells.
When the selection border is positioned appropriately, release the mouse button. Leave the Elliptical Marquee tool and the selection active for the next exercise. If the plate of shells is not still selected, repeat the previous exercise to select it.
The pointer icon now includes a pair of scissors cut from its current location. Note You can release the Ctrl or Command key after you start dragging, and the Move tool remains active. Photoshop reverts to the previously selected tool when you deselect, whether you click outside the selection or use the Deselect command.
Moving a selection with the arrow keys You can make minor adjustments to the position of selected pixels by using the arrow keys. You can nudge the selection in increments of either one pixel or ten pixels.
When a selection tool is active in the Tools panel, the arrow keys nudge the selection border, but not the contents. When the Move tool is active, the arrow keys move both the selection border and its contents.
Before you begin, make sure that the plate of shells is still selected in the image window. Press the Up Arrow key on your keyboard a few times to move the oval upward. Notice that each time you press the arrow key, the plate of shells moves one pixel. Experiment by pressing the other arrow keys to see how they affect the selection. Hold down the Shift key as you press an arrow key.
When you hold down the Shift key, the selection moves ten pixels every time you press an arrow key. Sometimes the border around a selected area can distract you as you make adjustments. Either command hides the selection border around the plate of shells. Using the Magic Wand tool The Magic Wand tool selects all the pixels of a particular color or color range. As with many of the selection tools, after you make the initial selection, you can add or subtract areas of the selection.
The Tolerance option sets the sensitivity of the Magic Wand tool. This value limits or extends the range of pixel similarity. The default tolerance value of 32 selects the color you click plus 32 lighter and 32 darker tones of that color. You may need to adjust the tolerance level up or down depending on the color ranges and variations in the image. If a multicolored area that you want to select is set against a background of a different color, it can be much easier to select the background than the area itself.
Select the Rectangular Marquee tool , hidden behind the Elliptical Marquee tool. Drag a selection around the piece of coral. Make sure that your selection is large enough so that a margin of white appears between the coral and the edges of the marquee.
At this point, the coral and the white background area are selected. Select the Magic Wand tool , hidden under the Quick Selection tool. In the options bar, confirm that the Tolerance value is This value determines the range of colors the wand selects. Click the Subtract From Selection button in the options bar. A minus sign appears next to the wand in the pointer icon. Anything you select now will be subtracted from the initial selection. Click in the white background area within the selection marquee.
The Magic Wand tool selects the entire background, subtracting it from the selection. Now all the white pixels are deselected, leaving the coral perfectly selected. Softening the edges of a selection To smooth the hard edges of a selection, you can apply anti-aliasing or feathering, or use the Refine Edge option.
Anti-aliasing smooths the jagged edges of a selection by softening the color transition between edge pixels and background pixels. Since only the edge pixels change, no detail is lost. Anti-aliasing is useful when cutting, copying, and pasting selections to create composite images. Select the tool to display its options in the options bar. To apply anti-aliasing, you must select the option before making the selection.
Once a selection is made, you cannot add antialiasing to it. Feathering blurs edges by building a transition boundary between the selection and its surrounding pixels. This blurring can cause some loss of detail at the edge of the selection. You can define feathering for the marquee and lasso tools as you use them, or you can add feathering to an existing selection.
Feathering effects become apparent when you move, cut, or copy the selection. You can use the Refine Edge option to smooth the outline, feather it, or contract or expand it. Enter a Feather value in the options bar. This value defines the width of the feathered edge and can range from 1 to pixels. Enter a value for the Feather Radius, and click OK.
Selecting with the lasso tools As we mentioned earlier, Photoshop includes three lasso tools: the Lasso tool, the Polygonal Lasso tool, and the Magnetic Lasso tool. You can use the Lasso tool to make selections that require both freehand and straight lines, using keyboard shortcuts to move back and forth between the Lasso tool and the Polygonal Lasso tool.
Make sure you can see the entire mussel in the window. Starting at the lower left section of the mussel, drag. Do not release the mouse button. Press the Alt Windows or Option Mac OS key, and then release the mouse button so that the lasso pointer changes to the polygonal lasso shape. Do not release the Alt or Option key. Begin clicking along the end of the mussel to place anchor points, following the contours of the mussel.
Be sure to hold down the Alt or Option key throughout this process. The selection border automatically stretches like a rubber band between anchor points. When you reach the tip of the mussel, hold down the mouse button as you release the Alt or Option key. The pointer again appears as the lasso icon. Carefully drag around the tip of the mussel, holding down the mouse button.
When you finish tracing the tip and reach the lower side of the mussel, first press Alt or Option again, and then release the mouse button. Click along the lower side of the mussel with the Polygonal Lasso tool as you did on the top. Continue to trace the mussel until you arrive back at the starting point of your selection near the left end of the image.
Click the starting point of the selection, and then release Alt or Option. The mussel is now entirely selected. Leave the mussel selected for the next exercise. Note To make sure that the selection is the shape you want when you use the Lasso tool, end the selection by dragging across the starting point of the selection. If you start and stop the selection at different points, Photoshop draws a straight line between the start and end points of the selection.
Before you begin, make sure that the mussel is still selected. The mussel and selection marquee are enclosed in a bounding box. Move the pointer outside the bounding box so that it becomes a curved, doubleheaded arrow. Drag to rotate the mussel to a degree angle. You can verify the angle in the Rotate box in the options bar. Press Enter or Return to commit the transformation. If necessary, select the Move tool and drag to reposition the mussel, leaving a shadow to match the others. Selecting with the Magnetic Lasso tool You can use the Magnetic Lasso tool to make freehand selections of areas with highcontrast edges.
When you draw with the Magnetic Lasso tool, the selection border automatically snaps to the edge between areas of contrast.
You can also control the selection path by occasionally clicking the mouse to place anchor points in the selection border. Select the Magnetic Lasso tool , hidden under the Lasso tool. Click once along the left edge of the nautilus, and then move the Magnetic Lasso tool along the edge to trace its outline. Tip In low-contrast areas, you may want to click to place your own fastening points. You can add as many as you need. To remove the most recent fastening point, press Delete, and then move the mouse back to the remaining fastening point and continue selecting.
When you reach the left side of the nautilus again, double-click to return the Magnetic Lasso tool to the starting point, closing the selection. Or you can move the Magnetic Lasso tool over the starting point and click once. Double-click the Hand tool to fit the image in the image window. Make sure that you can see the entire screw head in your image window. Select the Elliptical Marquee tool in the Tools panel. Move the pointer to the approximate center of the screw.
Click and begin dragging. Then, without releasing the mouse button, press Alt Windows or Option Mac OS as you continue dragging the selection to the outer edge of the screw. The selection is centered over its starting point. When you have the entire screw head selected, release the mouse button first, and then release Alt or Option and the Shift key if you used it. Tip To select a perfect circle, press Shift as you drag.
Hold down Shift while dragging the Rectangular Marquee tool to select a perfect square. If necessary, reposition the selection border using one of the methods you learned earlier. If you accidentally released the Alt or Option key before you released the. Before you begin, make sure that the screw is still selected. Select the Move tool in the Tools panel. Position the pointer within the screw selection.
The pointer becomes an arrow with a pair of scissors , indicating that dragging the selection will cut it from its current location and move it to the new location. Drag the screw onto the lower right corner of the shadowbox. A bounding box appears around the selection. Then press Enter or Return to commit the change and remove the transformation bounding box.
As you resize the object, the selection marquee resizes, too. Use the Move tool to reposition the screw after resizing it, so that it is centered in the corner of the shadowbox frame.
Moving and duplicating a selection simultaneously You can move and duplicate a selection at the same time. If the screw is no longer selected, reselect it now, using the techniques you learned earlier. The pointer changes, displaying the usual black arrow and an additional white arrow, which indicates that a duplicate will be made when you move the selection.
Continue holding down the Alt or Option key as you drag a duplicate of the screw straight up to the top right corner of the frame. Pressing the Shift key as you move a selection constrains the movement horizontally or vertically in degree increments. Repeat step 3 to drag a fourth screw to the lower left corner of the frame. Copying selections You can use the Move tool to copy selections as you drag them within or between images, or you can copy and move selections using the Copy, Copy Merged, Paste, and Paste Into commands.
Dragging with the Move tool saves memory, because the clipboard is not used as it is with the commands. The source selection is pasted onto a new layer, and the destination selection border is converted into a layer mask. Keep in mind that when a selection is pasted between images with different resolutions, the pasted data retains its pixel dimensions.
This can make the pasted portion appear out of proportion to the new image. Use the Image Size command to make the source and destination images the same resolution before copying and pasting. Select the Crop tool , or press C to switch from the current tool to the Crop tool.
Photoshop displays a crop boundary around the entire image. In the options bar, make sure Ratio is selected in the Preset pop-up menu and that there are no ratio values specified. Then confirm that Delete Cropped Pixels is selected. When Ratio is selected but no ratio values are specified, you can crop the image with any proportions. Drag the crop handles so that the shadowbox is in the highlighted area, omitting the backgrounds from the original objects at the bottom of the image.
Tip To crop an image with its original proportions intact, choose Original Ratio from the Preset pop-up menu in the options bar. The shadowbox is complete! How do you add to and subtract from a selection? What does the Quick Selection tool do? How does the Magic Wand tool determine which areas of an image to select? What is tolerance, and how does it affect a selection? Only the area within an active selection can be edited.
To add to a selection, click the Add To Selection button in the options bar, and then click the area you want to add. To subtract from a selection, click the Subtract From Selection button in the options bar, and then click the area you want to subtract.
You can also add to a selection by pressing Shift as you drag or click; to subtract, press Alt Windows or Option Mac OS as you drag or click. The Quick Selection tool expands outward from where you click to automatically find and follow defined edges in the image. The Magic Wand tool selects adjacent pixels based on their similarity in color. The Tolerance value determines how many color tones the Magic Wand tool will select.
The higher the tolerance setting, the more tones are selected. This lesson will take less than an hour to complete. In Photoshop, you can isolate different parts of an image on layers. Each layer can then be edited as discrete artwork, giving you tremendous flexibility as you compose and revise an image. About layers Every Photoshop file contains one or more layers. New files are generally created with a background layer, which contains a color or an image that shows through the transparent areas of subsequent layers.
All new layers in an image are transparent until you add text or artwork pixel values. Working with layers is analogous to placing portions of a drawing on clear sheets of film, such as those viewed with an overhead projector: Individual sheets may be edited, repositioned, and deleted without affecting the other sheets. When the sheets are stacked, the entire composition is visible. When prompted, click Yes to delete the Adobe Photoshop Settings file. Then double-click the Lesson04 folder in the Content panel to see its contents.
Study the 04End. This layered composite represents a postcard. You will create it in this lesson as you learn how to create, edit, and manage layers. Double-click the 04Start. Saving another version of the start file frees you to make changes without worrying about overwriting the original. Using the Layers panel The Layers panel lists all the layers in an image, displaying the layer names and thumbnails of the content on each layer.
You can use the Layers panel to hide, view, reposition, delete, rename, and merge layers. The layer thumbnails are automatically updated as you edit the layers. The Layers panel lists five layers for the 04Working. If you click the eye, the image window no longer displays that layer. The first task for this project is to add a photo of the beach to the postcard. Tip Use the context menu to hide or resize the layer thumbnail.
Right-click Windows or Control-click Mac OS a thumbnail in the Layers panel to open the context menu, and then choose a thumbnail size. The Layers panel changes to display the layer information for the active Beach. Notice that only one layer appears in the Beach. About the background layer When you create a new image with a white or colored background, the bottom layer in the Layers panel is named Background. An image can have only one background layer.
You cannot change the stacking order of a background layer, its blending mode, or its opacity. You can, however, convert a background layer to a regular layer. To convert a background layer into a regular layer: 1. Click the lock icon next to the layer name. Rename the layer. To convert a regular layer into a background layer: 1. Select a layer in the Layers panel. Renaming and copying a layer To add content to an image and simultaneously create a new layer for it, drag an object or layer from one file into the image window of another file.
Whether you drag from the image window of the original file or from its Layers panel, only the active layer is reproduced in the destination file.
Before you begin, make sure that both the 04Working. Keep the layer selected. Photoshop displays both of the open image files. Select the Beach. Select the Move tool , and use it to drag the Beach. Tip If you hold down Shift as you drag an image from one file into another, the dragged image automatically centers itself in the target image window. The Beach layer now appears in the 04Working.
Photoshop always adds new layers directly above the selected layer; you selected the Background layer earlier. Tip Need images for a project like this one? If you purchase the images, Photoshop replaces the placeholders with high-resolution images. Viewing individual layers The 04Working. Some of the layers are visible and some are hidden. The eye icon next to a layer thumbnail in the Layers panel indicates that the layer is visible.
Click the eye icon next to the Pineapple layer to hide the image of the pineapple. Select the Beach layer. To select the layer, click the layer name in the Layers panel. The layer is highlighted, indicating that it is active. Changes you make in the image window affect the active layer. To make the opaque areas on this layer more obvious, hide all layers except the Beach layer: Press Alt Windows or Option Mac OS as you click the eye icon next to the Beach layer.
The white background and other objects in the image disappear, leaving only the beach image against a checkerboard background. The checkerboard indicates transparent areas of the active layer. The Layer Style dialog box opens. Rearranging layers The order in which the layers of an image are organized is called the stacking order. The stacking order determines how the image is viewed—you can change the order to make certain parts of the image appear in front of or behind other layers.
The beach image is almost entirely blocked by images on other layers. Changing the opacity of a layer You can reduce the opacity of any layer to reveal the layers below it. In this case, the postmark is too dark on the flower. Select the Postage layer, and then click the arrow next to the Opacity field to display the Opacity slider. You can also type 25 in the Opacity box or scrub the Opacity label. Notice that the change in opacity affects only the image area of the Postage layer. Duplicating a layer and changing the blending mode You can apply different blending modes to a layer.
Blending modes affect how the color pixels on one layer blend with pixels on the layers underneath. Currently, the blending mode for both layers is Normal. Right-click or Control-click the Pineapple layer, and choose Duplicate Layer from the context menu. Click OK in the Duplicate Layer dialog box.
Blending modes Blending modes affect how the color pixels on one layer blend with pixels on the layers beneath them. The default blending mode, Normal, hides pixels beneath the top layer unless the top layer is partially or completely transparent. Each of the other blending modes let you control the way the pixels in the layers interact with each other.
Often, the best way to see how a blending mode affects your image is simply to try it. You can easily experiment with different blending modes in the Layers panel, applying one after another to compare the effects. As you begin experimenting, keep in mind how different groups of blending modes affect an image. Patterns or colors overlay the existing pixels while preserving the highlights and shadows of the underlying layers. With the Pineapple copy layer selected, choose Overlay from the Blending Modes menu in the Layers panel.
The Overlay blending mode blends the Pineapple copy layer with the Pineapple layer beneath it to create a vibrant, more colorful pineapple with deeper shadows and brighter highlights. Select the Postage layer, and choose Multiply from the Blending Modes menu. The Multiply blending mode multiplies the colors in the underlying layers with the color in the top layer. In this case, the postmark becomes a little stronger. Resizing and rotating layers You can resize and transform layers.
Click the Visibility column on the Beach layer to make the layer visible. A Transform bounding box appears around the beach image. The bounding box has handles on each corner and each side. Press Shift as you drag a corner handle inward to scale the beach photo down by.
Watch the Width and Height percentages in the options bar. With the bounding box still active, position the pointer just outside one of the corner handles until it becomes a curved double arrow.
Drag clockwise to rotate the beach image approximately 15 degrees. You can also enter 15 in the Set Rotation box in the options bar. Click the Commit Transform button in the options bar. Make the Flower layer visible. Then, select the Move tool , and drag the beach photo so that its corner is tucked neatly beneath the flower, as in the illustration.
Adding empty layers to a file is comparable to adding blank sheets of film to a stack of images. In the Layers panel, select the Background layer to make it active, and then click the Create A New Layer button at the bottom of the Layers panel. A new layer, named Layer 1, appears between the Background and Pineapple layers. The layer has no content, so it has no effect on the image. Double-click the name Layer 1, type Clouds, and press Enter or Return to rename the layer. In the Tools panel, click the foreground color swatch, select a sky blue color from the Color Picker, and click OK.
The Background Color remains white. Dragging to add a new layer You can add a layer to an image by dragging an image file from the desktop, Bridge, or Explorer Windows or the Finder Mac OS.
In Photoshop, select the Pineapple copy layer in the Layers panel to make it the active layer. Then navigate to the Lesson04 folder. Select Flower2. The Flower2 layer appears in the Layers panel, directly above the Pineapple copy layer.
Photoshop places the image as a Smart Object, which is a layer you can edit without making permanent changes. Tip You can drag images from a Bridge window to Photoshop as easily as you can drag from the Windows or Mac desktop. Position the Flower2 layer in the lower left corner of the postcard, so that about half of the top flower is visible. Then click the Commit Any Current Edits button in the options bar.
This layer is at the top of the layer stack. Note If you make a mistake when you click to set the type, simply click away from the type and repeat step 4. Applying a gradient to a layer You can apply a color gradient to all or part of a layer. In the Tools panel, select the Gradient tool. The text has been rasterized. The Background Color should still be white.
In the options bar, make sure that Linear Gradient is selected. Tip To list the gradient options by name rather than by sample, click the menu button in the gradient picker, and choose either Small List or Large List. Or, hover the pointer over a thumbnail until a tool tip appears, showing the gradient name. In the options bar, click the arrow next to the Gradient Editor box to open the Gradient Picker.
With the selection still active, drag the Gradient tool from the bottom to the top of the letters. If you want to be sure you drag straight up, press the Shift key as you drag. The gradient extends across the type, starting with orange at the bottom and gradually blending to white at the top.
Applying a layer style You can enhance a layer by adding a shadow, stroke, satin sheen, or other special effect from a collection of automated and editable layer styles. These styles are easy to apply, and they link directly to the layer you specify. Like layers, layer styles can be hidden by clicking eye icons in the Layers panel.
Layer styles are nondestructive, so you can edit or remove them at any time. You can apply a copy of a layer style to a different layer by dragging the effect onto the destination layer. Earlier, you used a layer style to add a stroke to the beach photo. In the Layer Style dialog box, make sure that the Preview option is selected, and then, if necessary, move the dialog box so that you can see the Island Paradise text in the image window.
Tip You can also open the Layer Style dialog box by clicking the Add A Layer Style button at the bottom of the Layers panel and then choosing a layer style, such as Bevel And Emboss, from the pop-up menu. If you set a lighting angle in one of these effects, every other effect with Use Global Light selected inherits the same angle setting. Angle determines the lighting angle at which the effect is applied to the layer.
Distance determines the offset distance for a shadow or satin effect. Spread determines how. Size determines how far the shadow extends. Click OK to accept the settings and close the Layer Style dialog box. Photoshop nests the layer style in the Island Paradise layer. First it lists Effects, and then the layer styles applied to the layer. An eye icon appears next to the effect category and next to each effect.
To turn off an effect, click its eye icon. Click the visibility column again to restore the effect. An After Effects composition has both spatial dimensions and a temporal dimension time. Compositions include one or more layers, arranged in the Composition panel and in the Timeline panel. Simple projects may include only one composition, while elaborate projects may include several compositions to organize large amounts of footage or intricate effects sequences.
Drag the selected footage items into the Timeline panel. The New Composition From Selection dialog box appears. After Effects bases the dimensions of the new composition on the selected footage. In this example, all of the footage is sized identically, so you can accept the default settings for the composition. Click OK to create the new composition. When you add a footage item to a composition, the footage becomes the source for a new layer. A composition can have any number of layers, and you can also include a composition as a layer in another composition, which is called nesting.
Some of the assets are longer than others, but you want them all to appear only as long as the dancers are on the screen. The Timeline panel displays the same duration for each of the layers.
In this composition, there are five footage items, and therefore five layers in the Timeline panel. Depending on the order in which the elements were selected when you imported them, your layer stack may differ from the one shown on the previous page. Any item that you add to a composition—such as a still image, moving-image file, audio file, light layer, camera layer, or even another composition—becomes a new layer.
Without layers, a composition consists only of an empty frame. Using layers, you can work with specific footage items in a composition without affecting any other footage. For example, you can move, rotate, and draw masks for one layer without disturbing any other layers in the composition, or you can use the same footage in more than one layer and use it differently in each instance. In general, the layer order in the Timeline panel corresponds to the stacking order in the Composition panel.
P-P Note You may need to click a blank area of the Timeline panel or press F2 to deselect layers before you can select an individual layer. Click an empty area of the Timeline panel to deselect the layers, and then drag bgwtext to the bottom of the layer stack, if it is not already there. After Effects includes tools that enable you to modify elements of your composition.
Others will be new. Selection B. Hand C, Zoom D. Rotation E. Camera tools F. Pan Behind G. Mask and Shape tools H. Pen tools I. Type tools J. Brush K. Clone Stamp L. Eraser M. Roto Brush and Refine Edge tools N. Puppet tools When you hover the pointer over any button in the Tools panel, a tool tip identifies the tool and its keyboard shortcut. A small triangle in the lower right corner of the button indicates that one or more additional tools are hidden behind it.
Click and hold the button to display the hidden tools, and then select the tool you want to use. Adding effects and modifying layer properties Now that your composition is set up, you can start having fun—applying effects, making transformations, and adding animation. The easiest way to start is to apply any of the hundreds of effects included with After Effects.
O Note This exercise is just the tip of the iceberg. You will learn more about effects and animation presets in Lesson 2. Working with duplicates lets you apply an effect to one layer and then use it in conjunction with the unmodified original. Select the first layer, dancers. A new layer with the same name appears at the top of the stack, so the first two layers are now both named dancers. Then press Enter or Return again to accept the new name. You can make the Layer Name column wider in order to see the full layer name, if you need to.
Notice that layer handles appear around the layer in the Composition panel. To return to the Composition panel, click the Composition tab.
In the Effect Controls panel, choose Zoom from the Type menu. Tip You can also type the x and y values directly into the coordinate fields in the Effect Controls panel, or you can position the pointer over the fields to see the double-arrow icon , and then drag right or left to increase or decrease the values, respectively.
The left and right values are x and y coordinates, respectively. Center the blur at approximately , Click the number next to Amount, type to increase the amount of blur, and press Enter or Return. This effect lets you make tonal adjustments to footage.
It simulates the result of modifying the exposure setting in f-stops of the camera that captured the image. In the Effect Controls panel, click the triangle next to the Radial Blur effect to hide those settings so that you can see the Exposure settings more easily.
For Master Exposure, type 1. This will make everything brighter in the layer, simulating an overexposed image. Exposure Reset About X bgwtext 2 E p. This keyboard shortcut displays only the Position property, which is the only property you want to change for this exercise. Change the x coordinate for the Position property to 0. Leave the y coordinate at You will move this layer to the right. Now you can see the two waveforms in the Composition panel, emerging from either side.
Now you will reduce the opacity of the waveforms. It all looks great, but how about some movement? In and Out points are the points at which a layer begins and ends in the composition.
Many of the Timeline panel controls are organized in columns of related functions. Current time B. Composition name C, Timeline panel menu D. Layer switches G. Time navigator start and end brackets B. Work area start and end brackets C. Time zoom slider D. Time ruler E. Composition marker bin F.. Composition button Before delving too deeply into animation, it will help to understand at least some of these controls.
The duration of a composition, a layer, or a footage item is represented visually in the time graph. The work area start and end brackets indicate the part of the composition that will be rendered for previews or final output. When you work on a composition, you may want to render only a portion of it by specifying a segment of the composition time ruler as a work area. To move to a different time, drag the current-time indicator in the time ruler—or click the current-time field in the Timeline panel or Composition panel, type a new time, and click OK.
For more information about the Timeline panel, see After Effects Help. Select the Project tab to display the Project panel, and then double-click the bgwtext composition to open it as a composition in its own Timeline panel. This composition is the layered Photoshop file you imported. Two layers—Title Here and Background—appear in the Timeline panel. The Title Here layer contains placeholder text that was created in Photoshop.
Background At the top of the Composition panel is the Composition Navigator bar, which displays the relationship between the main composition bgwtext 2 and the current composition bgwtext , which is nested within the main composition.
You can nest multiple compositions within each other; the Composition Navigator bar displays the entire composition path. Arrows between the composition names indicate the direction in which information flows. Before you can replace the text, you need to make the layer editable. K c, r A T icon appears next to the layer name in the Timeline panel, indicating that it is now an editable text layer.
The layer is also selected in the Composition panel, ready for you to edit. The blue lines at the top, bottom, and sides of the Composition panel indicate title-safe and action-safe zones. Television sets enlarge a video image and allow some portion of its outer edges to be cut off by the edge of the screen. This is known as overscan. The amount of overscan is not consistent between television sets, so you should keep important parts of a video image, such as action or titles, within margins called safe zones.
Keep your text inside the inner blue guides to ensure that it is in the title-safe zone, and keep important scene elements inside the outer blue guides to ensure that they are in the action-safe zone. Select the Horizontal Type tool T in the Tools panel, and drag over the placeholder text in the Composition panel to select it.
Then type in motion. Layer iNaire r. Then type bubble in the search box. Select the Zoom-Bubble effect in the Transitions-Movement category, and drag it onto the in motion text in the Composition panel. You can change effect settings in this panel or in the Timeline panel.
About timecode and duration The primary concept related to time is duration, or length. Each footage item, layer, and composition in a project has its own duration, which is reflected in the beginning and ending times displayed in the time rulers in the Composition, Layer, and Timeline panels.
The way you view and specify time in After Effects depends on the display style, or unit of measure, that you use to describe time. By default. Note that the figures are separated by semicolons in the After Effects interface, representing drop-frame timecode which adjusts for the real-time frame rate , but this book uses a colon to represent non-drop-frame timecode. To learn when and how to change to another system of time display, such as frames, or feet and frames of film, see After Effects Help.
A diamond appears in the Transition Completion bar for the layer in the time graph, indicating the keyframe that After Effects created when you added the effect. Go to in the timeline by clicking the Current Time field in the Timeline panel and typing , and then pressing Enter or Return, or by dragging the current-time indicator to Easing into and out of animations keeps the motion from appearing to be too sudden or robotic.
Tip To see greater detail in the Timeline panel, move the time zoom slider at the bottom of the panel. A keyframe marks the point in time where you specify a value, such as spatial position, opacity, or audio volume.
Values between keyframes are interpolated. When you use keyframes to create a change over time, you must use at least two keyframes—one for the state at the beginning of the change, and one for the state at the end of the change.
Manually preview the effect by moving the current-time indicator from 0 to Drag the Channel Blur effect onto the type in the Composition panel. After Effects adds the Channel Blur effect to the Timeline panel and displays its settings in the Effect Controls panel.
In the Effect Controls panel, click the triangles next to Zoom-bubble, Spherize, and Transform to hide their settings so you can focus on the Channel Blur settings. Click the stopwatch icon next to each of the settings you changed to create initial keyframes. Erom the Blur Dimensions menu, choose Vertical.
Go to in the timeline. You can preview your composition using the Preview panel, which is in the stacked panels on the right side of the application window in the default workspace. In the bgwtext Timeline panel, collapse the Title Here layer, and deselect both layers. Tip Click the pasteboard of the Composition panel if you want to hide the motion path for this preview.
Press the Home key to go to the beginning of the time ruler. Do one of the following: Tip Verify that the work area brackets include all the frames you want to preview. After Effects caches the composition and allocates enough RAM to play the preview with audio as fast as the system allows, up to the frame rate of the composition.
The number of frames played depends on the amount of RAM available to the application. Often, the preview will play in real time only after After Effects has cached all the included frames.
In the Timeline panel, the preview plays either the span of time you specify as the work area, or from the beginning of the time ruler. In the Layer and Footage panels, the preview plays only untrimmed footage.
Before you preview, check which frames are designated as the work area. Click the bgwtext 2 tab in the Timeline panel to bring it forward. Drag the current-time indicator to the beginning of the time ruler, or press the Home key. A green progress bar indicates which frames are cached to RAM. When all of the frames in the work area are cached, the preview plays back in real time. The more detail and precision you want to preview, the more RAM is required. You can control the amount of detail shown by changing the resolution, magnification, and preview quality of your composition.
Press the spacebar to stop the preview. Optimizing performance in After Effects How you configure After Effects and your computer determines how quickly After Effects renders projects. Complex compositions can require a large amount of memory to render, and the rendered movies can take a large amount of disk space to store. You will learn about exporting compositions in subsequent lessons, especially in Lesson As you modify a workspace.
After Effects saves those modifications, so the next time you open the project, the most recent version of a workspace is used. You can save any workspace configuration, or use any of the preset workspaces that come with After Effects. These predefined workspaces are suitable for different types of workflows, such as animation or effects work. Using predefined workspaces Take a minute to explore the predefined workspaces in After Effects.
Click Animation in the Workspace bar, which is next to the Tools panel. Name Type Size Frame.. MB You can also change workspaces using the Workspace menu. Different panels open. The Composition panel is replaced by the Layer panel, for easy access to the tools and controls you need to paint in your compositions. Saving a custom workspace You can save any workspace, at any time, as a custom workspace.
If a project with a custom workspace is opened on a system other than the one on which it was created. After Effects looks for a workspace with a matching name. Close a panel by choosing Close Panel from its panel menu. Click Essentials in the Workspace bar. Controlling the brightness of the user interface You can brighten or darken the After Effects user interface. Changing the brightness preference affects panels, windows, and dialog boxes.
Drag the Brightness slider to the left or right, and notice how the screen changes. Click OK to save the new brightness setting or Cancel to leave your preferences unchanged. You can click Default to restore the default brightness setting.
Finding resources for using After Effects For complete and up-to-date information about using After Effects panels, tools, and other application features, visit the Adobe website.
To search for information in After Effects Help and support documents, as well as on other websites relevant to After Effects users, simply enter a search term in the Search Help box in the upper right corner of the application window. You can narrow the results to view only Adobe Help and support documents. The Start window that appears when you open the application provides access to video tutorials and other information to help you get the most out of After Effects.
For additional resources, such as tips and techniques and the latest product information, check out the After Effects Help And Support page at helpx. Review questions 1. What are the basic components of the After Effects workflow?
What is a composition? How can you find missing footage? How can you preview your work in After Effects? How can you customize an After Effects workspace? Review answers 1. Most After Effects workflows include these steps: importing and organizing footage, creating compositions and arranging layers, adding effects, animating elements, previewing your work, and rendering and exporting the final composition.
A composition is where you create all animation, layering, and effects. An After Effects composition has both spatial and temporal time dimensions. Or type Missing Footage into the Search field in the Properties panel. After Effects allocates enough RAM to play the preview with audio as fast as the system allows, up to the frame rate of the composition. You can customize an After Effects workspace by dragging the panels into the configuration that best suits your working style.
You can drag panels to new locations, move panels into or out of groups, place panels alongside each other, stack panels, and undock a panel so that it floats above the application window. As you rearrange panels, the other panels resize automatically to fit the application window. You can use them to create great-looking animations quickly and easily. Getting started In this lesson, you will become more familiar with the Adobe After Effects project workflow.
You will animate the travel show ID so that it fades to become a watermark that can appear in the lower right corner of the screen during other TV programs. Open and play the Lesson When you are done, quit QuickTime Player.
When you begin the lesson, restore the default application settings for After Effects. After Effects opens to display a blank, untitled project. Importing footage using Adobe Bridge In Lesson 1. However, After Effects offers another, more powerful, more flexible way to import footage for a composition: Adobe Bridge. You can use Adobe Bridge to organize, browse, and locate the assets you need to create content for print, web, television, DVD, film, and mobile devices.
You can drag assets into your layouts, projects, and compositions as needed; preview your assets; and even add metadata file information to assets to make files easier to locate. In this exercise, you will jump to Adobe Bridge to import the still image that will serve as the background of your composition.
Tip You can use Adobe Bridge separately to manage your files. If you receive a message about enabling an extension to Adobe Bridge, click Yes. Adobe Bridge opens, displaying a collection of panels, menus, and buttons. Click the Folders tab in the upper left corner of Adobe Bridge. Click the arrows to open nested folders. You can also double-click folder thumbnail icons in the Content panel. Drag the thumbnail slider at the bottom of the Adobe Bridge window to enlarge the thumbnail previews.
Select the ParisRiver. Information about the file, including its creation date, bit depth, and file size, appears in the Metadata panel. S7 Focal Length 4. Double-click the ParisRiver. Alternatively, you can drag the thumbnail into the Project panel in After Effects. Creating a new composition Following the After Effects workflow you learned in Lesson 1. You can also create an empty composition, and then add your footage items to it.
This preset automatically sets the width, height, pixel aspect ratio, and frame rate for the composition to NTSC standards. After Effects displays an empty composition named Destinations in the Composition panel and in the Timeline panel. Drag the ParisRiver. Importing the foreground element Your background is now in place. The foreground object youTl use is a layered vector graphic that was created in Illustrator.
This folder contains the three individual layers of the Illustrator file. Click the triangle to open the folder and see its contents if you like. The composition opens in its own Timeline and Composition panels. In the Character panel, select a sans serif typeface such as Myriad Pro, and change the font size to 24 pixels. After Effects applies it to the text you typed. Leave all other options in the Character panel at their defaults.
You may need to expand the width of the panel to see the eyedropper. The effect you create next will be applied only to the logo elements, not to the background image of the river.
You can customize the effect using the Effect Controls panel, which appears in front of the Project panel when you apply an effect. Applying and controlling effects You can apply or remove an effect at any time. By default, when you apply an effect to a layer, the effect is active for the duration of the layer. However, you can make an effect start and stop at specific times, or make the effect more or less intense over time.
Note, however, that when you apply an effect to an adjustment layer, the effect is applied to all layers below it in the Timeline panel. Effects can also be saved, browsed, and applied as animation presets. You can set these values by clicking the field and typing the number or by dragging the blue value.
Then click the triangle next to Stylize to expand the category. The Color Emboss effect sharpens the edges of objects in the layer without suppressing the original colors. Move the current-time indicator to , which is the point at which you want the text to start fading in. The text appears, letter by letter, until the words travel Europe are fully onscreen at Globe logo, and crop area.
Precomposing is a way to nest layers within a composition. Precomposing moves the layers to a new composition, which takes the place of the selected layers. When you want to change the order in which layer components are rendered, precomposing is a quick way to create intermediate levels of nesting in an existing hierarchy. Shift-click to select the rotated type. Then click OK. The new compasitkin will become the source to the current layer.
Tnis Dption is not avaiiabie because more than one layer Is selected. Move aJI attributes into the new composition Use this option to place the currently selected layers together iintD a new intermecPIate composition.
This new, precomposed layer contains the three layers that you selected in step 1. The default settings are fine for this project. Click the Destinations tab in the Timeline panel to switch to the main composition. Press the spacebar to stop playback at any time. Still in the Destinations Timeline panel, go to Click the stopwatch icon to set an Opacity keyframe at this point in time.
After Effects adds a keyframe. When you place your composition in the Render Queue, it becomes a render item that uses the render settings assigned to it. Note For more about output formats and rendering, see Lesson Note For output to final-delivery formats, you can use Adobe Media Encoder, which is installed when you install After Effects.
The Render Queue panel opens automatically. Click the triangle to expand the Render Settings options. Click the triangle to expand the Output Module options. After Effects uses lossless compression to encode the rendered composition into a movie file, which is fine for this project. But you need to identify where to save the file. Back in the Render Queue panel, click the Render button.
If you want to see your final product, double-click the Destinations. Glose the project file, and then quit After Effects. How do you use Adobe Bridge to preview and import files? What is precomposing? How do you customize an effect? How do you modify the transparency of a layer in a composition?
In Bridge, you can search for and preview image assets. When you locate the asset you want to use in an After Effects project, double-click it, or drag it to the Project panel. After you apply an effect to a layer in a composition, you can customize its properties in the Effect Gontrols panel.
To modify the transparency of a layer, reduce its opacity. This lesson will take approximately two hours to complete. Getting started Adobe After Effects offers many ways to animate text. You can animate text layers by manually creating keyframes in the Timeline panel, using animation presets, or using expressions. You can even animate individual characters or words in a text layer.
As you start the application, restore the default settings for After Effects. Importing the footage You need to import two footage items to begin this lesson. Double-click an empty area of the Project panel to open the Import File dialog box. This makes After Effects an incredibly powerful application for compositing and motion graphics work. Creating the composition Now, youTl create the composition. Arrange the layers so that compass.
About text layers In After Effects, you can add text with flexibility and precision. The Tools, Character, and Paragraph panels contain a wide range of text controls. You can create and edit horizontal or vertical text direcdy on the screen in the Composition panel, and quickly change the font, style, size, and color of the text.
In addition to all of these style features. After Effects provides tools for easily animating specific characters and properties, such as text opacity and hue. After Effects uses two types of text: point text and paragraph text. Use point text to enter a single word or line of characters; use paragraph text to enter and format text as one or more paragraphs. In many ways, text layers are just like any other layers in After Effects. You can apply effects and expressions to text layers, animate them, designate them as 3D layers, and edit the 3D text while viewing from multiple angles.
As with layers imported from Illustrator, text layers are continuously rasterized, so when you scale the layer or resize the text, it retains crisp, resolution-independent edges. The two main differences between text layers and other layers are that you cannot open a text layer in its own Layer panel and you can animate the text in a text layer using special text-animator properties and selectors. Installing a font using Typekit Hundreds of fonts are available through Adobe Typekit, which is included with an Adobe Creative Cloud membership.
After Effects opens the Adobe Typekit page in your default browser. Choose Sort By Name from the pop-up menu in the upper right corner. Then, on the right side of the page, click the Sans Serif button in the Classification area and both the Web and Sync buttons in the Availability area.
In the Properties area, select the buttons for medium weight, medium width, low contrast, and standard capitalization. Typekit displays several fonts that meet the requirements you specified. Type Road Trip in the sample text field, and move the slider to decrease the sample text size so you can see the full title. Using your own text as the sample text lets you get a feel for how a font will work in your project. Caliuna Sans will work nicely.
Hover your mouse over Caliuna Sans until you see a green overlay. Use them in any desktop application—such as Adobe Photoshopp or your word processor. Learn more about desktop use.
Click Sync Selected Fonts. The selected fonts are automatically added to your system and are then available in any application, including After Effects.
The text you enter appears in a new text layer. The small line through the I-beam marks the position of the text baseline. In the Tools panel, select the Horizontal Type tool T. Click an 5 rwhere in the Composition panel, and type Road Trip. Then press Enter on the numeric keypad to exit text-editing mode and to select the text layer in the Composition panel. Or, you can select the layer name to exit text-editing mode.
Using the Character panel The Character panel provides options for formatting characters. If text is highlighted, changes you make in the Character panel affect only the highlighted text. If no text is highlighted and no text layers are selected, changes you make in the Character panel become the new defaults for the next text entry.
Select the Road Trip text layer in the Timeline panel. Tip To select a font quickly, begin typing its name in the Font Family box. If a type layer is selected, the text in the Composition panel takes on the newly selected font.
Choose Bold from the Font Style menu. Set the Font Size to 90 pixels. Leave all other options at their default settings. For point text, each line is a separate paragraph. You can use the Paragraph panel to set formatting options for a single paragraph, multiple paragraphs, or all paragraphs in a text layer.
This aligns horizontal text to the center of the layer, not to the center of the composition. Make sure the Road Trip text layer is selected in the Timeline panel.
This scales the layer to fit to the width of the composition. Now you can position the text layer using a grid. Using the Selection tool k , drag the text up in the Composition panel until the base of the letters sits on the horizontal gridline in the center of the composition.
Press Shift after you start dragging to constrain the movement and help you position the text. Click Essentials in the Workspace bar at the top of the application window to return to the Essentials workspace. The easiest way to do that is to use one of the many animation presets that come with After Effects. After applying an animation preset, you can customize it and save it to use again in other projects.
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A selected tool remains active until you select a different tool. When a layer is made a parent to another layer, the other layer is called the child layer. After Effects displays the layer handles exerclse anchor point.